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CHINA'S DYNASTIES' TIMETABLE, THEIR GREAT TECHNOLOGICAL & CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS, AND HISTORICAL EVENTS


Homo Erectus Yuanmoensis lived in Yuanmou District of Yunnan Province
(about 1.7 million years ago)

Peking Men lived in Zhoukoudian District of Beijing City
(about two hundred thousand to seven hundred thousand years ago)
Started making tools such as needle, hanging, etc

Mountaneous-cavemen began community living,
adoption of family surnames

(about eighteen thousand years ago)

Matriclan community founded in Shanxi's Hemudu and Banpo
(about five to seven thousand years ago)

Middle & late stage of Dawenko Culture, Patriarch community began
(about four to five thousand years ago)

Era of Three Kings and Five Emperors
(about four thousand years ago)
The is the legendary Era of Yan Di, Huang Di, Yao, Shun, and Yu; "Huaxia" Culture, which is the traditional Chinese Culture that
lingers on to the present began to form.


Xia Dynasty
(2070 BC TO 1600 BC)
Invented the first calendar, known as the Xia Calendar; began the usage of bronze

Shang Dynasty
(1600 BC TO 1046 BC)
Began engraving Oracles on Carapace and Bones, leading to the development of written Chinese Language; recorded lunar and solar eclipses, developed foundry industry with virtuosity such as Simuwu Rectangle Ding, Four-Sheep Square Zun, etc.

Western Zhou Dynasty
(1046 BC TO 771 BC)
Developed bronze production industry, astronomy science flourished, recorded lunar eclipse, invented weaving equipment that produced jacquard cloth.

Spring and Autumn Period
(770 BC TO 476 BC)
A great era of philosophy in ancient China; appeared among them were great philosophers such as Confucius and Lao Zi, etc. Lao Zi wrote the "Dao De Jing", Confucius and his disciples wrote the "Lun Yu (the Analects)," the "Shi Jing (the Book of Odes)" is the oldest collection of psalms and poems, and Sun Zi's "Sun Zi Bing Fa (Sun Zi's Art of War)" is a monumental piece of literature in life philosophy. Multiplication mathematics tables invented; astronomy records of comet made

Warring States Period
(475 BC TO 221 BC)

Great thoughts and great thinkers, such as Meng Zi, Qu Yuan, Zhuang Zi, etc. appeared. discovery of the Compass, one of the four greatest inventions of China; the completion of the huge irrigation engineering project of Dujiangyan Dam. “Huang Di Nei Jing (Medicine Classic of Yellow Emperor)” remains to be the bible in today's Chinese traditional herbal medicine.

Qin Dynasty
(221 BC TO 206 BC)
Qin Shi Huang (the "First Emperor of Qin") unified China, and began the formation of the centralization system of Ancient China. The building of the legendary Great Wall reflected the wisdom and industriousness of the Chinese culture; the terra-cotta figures discovered in the tomb of Emperor Qin have been a world known cultural heritage.

Western Han Dynasty
(202 BC TO 8 A.D.)
Si Ma Qian wrote a great historical work, named "Shi Ji" (Historical Records)

Eastern Han Dynasty
(25 A.D. TO 220 A.D.)

Cai Lun developed the technology of papermaking, which is one of the four greatest inventions of China. Hua Tuo, a medicine man, invented "Wu Qin Xi (Medical Exercise Imitating Movements of Five Animals)" technique in curing illness; Zhang Heng invented seismograph and armillary sphere.

Era of the Three Kingdoms
(220 A.D. TO 280 A.D.)
Hegemony struggle ended up China being split into three kingdoms, each ruled under a warlord-like hero; this era is full of folk tales and classical stories of historic figures, such as Zhu Ge Liang, Cao Cao, Guan Yu, etc.

Jin Dynasty
(265 A.D. TO 420 A.D.)
A period of great literature; Calligrapher Wang Xi Zhi's "Lan Ting Xu," "Nu Li Zhen Tu" and "Luo Shen Fu Tu" are immortal masterpieces of art.

Southern and Northern Dynasties
(420 A.D. TO 589 A.D.)

Mathematician Zu Chong Zhi calculated the ratio of circumference to seven decimals. Agriculture began to develop; Jia Si Xie wrote a famous writing "Qi Min Yao Shu"(The Essential Skills of the Mass) that set the basic agricultural process for all Chinese peasants; Wang Chong, a materialism thinker, wrote "Shen-Mie Lun," (a Theory of Spiritual Perishability and the Destructibility of the Soul upon Death); rock carvings made during this era in the Yun Gang Cave and Long Men Cave are historical and cultural treasures.

Sui Dynasty
(581 A.D. TO 618 A.D.)

Craftsman Li Chun constructed the world's oldest Zhaozhou Bridge; with the invention of printing using wood carving press, the renown Buddhism scripture "Jin Gang Jing"(Paramita Sutra) was published. Completed the Grand Canal from Beijing to Hangzhou, which provides a vertical thoroughfare passage linking Northern China and Southern China.

Tang Dynasty
(618 A.D. TO 907 A.D.)
Amongst the dynasties in ancient China, Tang Dynasty ranks as the most flourishing period of all. Mo Gao Grottoes carvings in Dunhuang, Gansu Province is one of world's most precious arts heritage. Literature culture reached its peak during the Tang Dynasty. Poems written by renown poets such as Li Bai, Du Fu, Bai Ju Yi, etc. are still being memorized and recited today; calligraphy styles developed by Masters such as Yan Zhen Qing and Liu Zong Yuan are being modeled after to the present days. Gunpowder, another one of China's four greatest inventions, was invented. Skillful craftsmanship of Tricolor Pottery was perfected. Master monk Xuan Zang traveled to India to procure Hindu Buddhism scriptures, and promoted the spread of Buddhism religion in China; Inter-marriage of Tang Princess Wen Cheng and the Tibetan King Songtsan Gampo served as a diplomatic move to enhance boarder harmony between Tibet and China.

Song Dynasty
(960 A.D. TO 1276 A.D.)

Si Ma Guang wrote a historical work of "Zi Zhi Tong Jian (Using History as a Mirror)"; Song poems have become a literature representative of Ancient China culture; countless literates appeared, such as Ou Yang Xiu, Su Shi, Li Qing Zhao, Xin Qi Ji, Wang An Shi, etc; Bi Sheng invented Typesetting Mechanism Printing Press, which is one of China's four greatest inventions. Shen Kuo wrote "Meng Xi Bi Tan" which established the twelve-year Zodiac cycle.

Yuan Dynasty
(1271 A.D. TO 1368 A.D.)
During Yuan Dynasty, China amassed the largest territory in its history. The legendary Emperor Cheng Ji Si Han (Genghis khan) conquered not only all of the Asia Continent, but throughout the Middle East and a large part of Europe. Poetic drama became popular, which provided the foundation of the present Chinese Opera. Many playwrights and plays such as "Dou E Yuan (Snow in Summer)" by Guan Han Qing, "Xi Xiang Ji (Romance of West Chamber)"by Wang Shi Fu, etc; Huang Dao Po upgraded the textile technology.

Ming Dynasty
(1368 A.D. TO 1644 A.D.)
Seafaring developed; Zheng He's South Sea Navigation throughout Southeast Asia expanded China's political influence and promoted intercontinental relationships. Li Shi Zhen, regarded as the Father of Herbal Medicine wrote his famous "Ben Cao Gang Mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)" which became an Herbal Encyclopedia of Chinese traditional medicine. Ming's "Shan Guo Yan Yi" (Romance of the Three Kingdoms)", "Xi You Ji (Story of a Journey to the West)", "Shui Hu Zhuan (Heroes of the Marshes)" and Qing's "Hong Lou Meng (The Dream of Red Mansion)" together are the Four Most Popular Novels of Ancient China.

Qing Dynasty
(1636 A.D. TO 1911 A.D.)
Cao Xue Qin wrote "Hong Lou Meng (The Dream of Red Mansion)", Wu Jing Zi wrote the "Ru Lin Wai Shi (The Scholars)", Pu Song Ling wrote "Liao Zhai Zhi Yi (Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio)"; continuing the efforts started in Ming Dynasty, Qing completed the constructions of Yuan Ming Yuan Imperial Garden, the Forbidden City Palace Museum, Temple of Heaven, Yi-He Yuan Imperial Garden, which are all world famous historical and cultural heritage.

Republic of China
(1912 A.D. to 1949 A.D.)
Sun Zhong Shan (Dr. Sun Yet Sen) led the revolution that overthrown Qing Dynasty, ending the millennium-old rule of Dynastic Imperial government, and ushered in a democratic republic.

People's Republic of China
(1949 A.D. to the present)
Mao Ze Dong unified China and established the People's Republic of China. In 1978 Deng Xiao Ping promoted reforms and advocated his "Open Market Economy" policy. Hong Kong returned to the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997; Macau returned to the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China on January 1, 1999; Beijing to host the XXIX Olympic Games in August 2008.

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